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Monday, February 28

  1. page Jean Lafitte-Paul Housey edited ... Saxon, L. (1989). Lafitte the Pirate. Grenta: Pelican Publishing Co. Tallant, R. (1998). The …
    ...
    Saxon, L. (1989). Lafitte the Pirate. Grenta: Pelican Publishing Co.
    Tallant, R. (1998). The Pirate Lafitte and the Battle of New Orleans. Grenta: Pelican Publishing Co.
    Paper-
    Jean Laffite and the Battle of New Orleans
    Frenchman, Pirate, Hero, These are all words to describe Jean Lafitte. He helped Andrew Jackson fight off the British at New Orleans after he was sent to jail from raiding American ships. He was born on August 29, 1780 and died in 1825. He was one of Jackson's enemies before the battle of New Orleans but by the end of the battle he was showing his loyalty and spirit in front of Jackson's army which helped them win the battle. And also by the end of the battle he won over Jackson's loyalty. This is the story of Jean Lafitte at the battle of New Orleans.
    (Saxon, Lafitte the Pirate, 1989) (Tallant, 1998) (Groom, 2006) (Jr., 1996) (Davis, 2005)
    Jean Lafitte was born on August 29, 1780 and died sometime in the year 1825. He was either born in Pout-au-Prince, or in France. If he lived in France he moved to Haiti and his dad was very wealthy and owned a very good leather company. If he was born in Haiti his dad would have already owned the leather company which gave him a great fortune. He was very well off and he got a very good education with his two brothers, Pierre and Dominique. He and his brothers were very wealthy and well off because the family had many connections which gave them an extra step further that most people. In Jean’s childhood there was not much going on until he and his brother Pierre started a privateering business.
    (Saxon, Lafitte the Pirate, 1989) (Tallant, 1998) (Groom, 2006) (Jr., 1996) (Davis, 2005) (Remini, 1999)
    He and his brother started a privateering business when they acquired a good vessel for the job. They would get cheep merchandise and sell it tax free to merchants for high prices. The people liked Jean and Pierre but the governor of New Orleans did not like him too much because he would not collect as much tax money as he usually should. After the Embargo Act of 1807 he moved his operations to an island in the Barataria bay south of Louisiana he and his crew called Barataria. He would ship the merchandise to the island where he would meet the merchants to sell to. This was their system which worked very well.
    (Saxon, Lafitte the Pirate, 1989) (Tallant, 1998) (Groom, 2006) (Jr., 1996) (Davis, 2005) (Remini, 1999)
    Pierre and Jean were wanted by the governor very much he put out a 500 dollar reward to whoever could bring one of them to the governor. Pierre was later walking the streets of New Orleans and then was captured by local authorities. He was then thrown into the Caboose which was the prison in New Orleans. A few weeks later he escaped with three African-American men who joined Pierre’s crew. After Pierre’s escape the governor again sent out the offer to have whoever can bring him Pierre or Jean will receive 500 dollars. Then as a joke Pierre and Jean sent out a reward of 5,000 dollars to whoever could bring them the governor, Claiborne as a joke.
    (Saxon, Lafitte the Pirate, 1989) (Tallant, 1998) (Groom, 2006) (Jr., 1996) (Davis, 2005) (Remini, 1999)
    As the War of 1812 settled in the British sent two officers to ask the two brothers for help. They told them that they would give the Lafitte’s 30,000 dollars and the rank of captain in thy majesty’s royal navy if they won the war against the Americans. If the brothers said no then the British would burn down all of the Lafitte’s ships and then kill all of the Baritarians. So the deal was either die or join the British and get the rank of captain and 30,000 dollars if the British won the war. The brothers told the British if they could have fourteen days to think over the bribe. They said that they would return in fourteen days awaiting an answer. That day the Lafitte’s sent a letter to the Americans asking them if they needed help and telling them that the British tried to bribe them. The four reasons why Lafitte did not want to fight for the British were, first his men sympathized with America and Britain was their enemy, second he was doubt full to the British offer and the money did not tick his clock, third Claiborne may have sent an attack after him, and fourth he realized his position was heroic and would be admired by the people of New Orleans.
    (Saxon, Lafitte the Pirate, 1989) (Tallant, 1998) (Groom, 2006) (Jr., 1996) (Davis, 2005) (Remini, 1999)
    The fourteen days were already up and the Americans did not reply to the letters yet. On the thirteenth day there were ships approaching Baritaria. They were thought to be the British so only two ships remained with some Baritarians. Pierre and Jean left for thought of them being killed by the British. But it was not the British who came, it was the Americans who under the command of Governor Claiborne attacked the ships and burned one and kept the other. They killed all the Baritarians that were in their way. They also stole all of the merchandise that they found on the island. The British never arrived to Baritaria for lack of interest after the 14 days.
    (Saxon, Lafitte the Pirate, 1989) (Tallant, 1998) (Groom, 2006) (Jr., 1996) (Davis, 2005) (Remini, 1999) (Borneman, 2004)
    General Andrew Jackson first figured the pirates of Baritaria were worthless and they could not be of any help to the Americans defending New Orleans. But when he heard of the masses of British coming to attack New Orleans he changed his mind about the Baitarani’s offer for help which lead to a meeting with Jackson, Jean, and Claiborne. No one really knows where the meeting took place; it could have taken place on Bienville and Bourbon Street in the Old Absinthe House. It could have taken place in a room above the Exchange Coffee House on Chartres and St. Louis Streets. Or it may have taken place in Jackson’s head quarters on Royal Street. The outcome of the meeting was that Jean agreed to fight in the Battle. Also Jean was relieved of his crimes which would have put him in jail for a long time. This also helped Jackson because now he had more men to fight against the British. No one knew the coastline of Louisiana better than Jean and Pierre Lafitte.
    (Saxon, Lafitte the Pirate, 1989) (Tallant, 1998) (Groom, 2006) (Jr., 1996) (Davis, 2005) (Remini, 1999)
    The fight for New Orleans started on December 28th but the big battle was started on January 8th. The Americans were camped out many miles from New Orleans in trenches and fortifications. The British were camped out south of the Americans near a main river. General Jackson ordered his men to break the levee causing the river to flood over the British encampment but it failed, because the river was not high enough and the British did not suffer a scratch. Later 2,000 Tennessee men joined the fight but most of them were unarmed. The Baritarians helped to arm those men but there were still not enough weapons. The Baritarians also supplied large amounts of flint which makes all of the guns have more ammunition. The men who came with guns from Tennessee had very powerful weapons which helped with a different kind of warfare. They called them hunting parties. The Tennessee troops and some Baritarians would hide out in the woods stalking small units of British men and surprise them from the bushes and kill them. These tactics helped the Americans lower the British’s amount of men.
    (Saxon, Lafitte the Pirate, 1989) (Tallant, 1998) (Groom, 2006) (Jr., 1996) (Davis, 2005) (Remini, 1999) (Borneman, 2004)
    The small fights were happening for a while with rumors of the British attacking from everywhere but the final battle was on January 8th. The Americans were well out numbered but it was the tactics that won the Battle for the Americans. The British were in lines and rows which were open targets, while the Americans have already adopted the style of trench warfare with barricades and fox holes. Many British thought that the American style of fighting was improper but they answered in return that they were fighting for their homes and could use any style of fighting that they needed to.
    (Saxon, Lafitte the Pirate, 1989) (Tallant, 1998) (Groom, 2006) (Jr., 1996) (Davis, 2005) (Remini, 1999)
    The British were marching towards the Americans, open targets while the Americans had good cover with their barricades and foxholes. The Americans blew cannon balls at the British which would kill at least 20 men at a time. The British would then fill in the gaps of their rows and lines but would still constantly fall down. The battle was a huge success with the Americans suffering only 13 casualties and the British with 2600 casualties. The British retreated and they did not return with reinforcements. The Americans won their first victory at the Battle of New Orleans and Jean Lafitte played a very big part in the battle. His men, knowledge, and flint all contributed to the American victory.
    (Saxon, Lafitte the Pirate, 1989) (Tallant, 1998) (Groom, 2006) (Jr., 1996) (Davis, 2005) (Remini, 1999)
    After the battle Lafitte became a legal U.S. citizen and was pardoned of all of the piracy he committed. He and his brother then became spies in the Spanish-Mexican war for the Spanish and the Spanish lost. From there he moved to Galveston, Texas where his life story became murky and we do not know how he truly died. During his later years, piracy had died down but he still operated in the Gulf of Mexico. No one knows how he died, but some say it was a blessing for him because he would be out of work because piracy died down. He supposedly buried a lot of his treasure in places in the Gulf and due to that there has come many legends on how he died and where his treasure is. Lafitte was a pirate, privateer, business man and hero.
    (Saxon, Lafitte the Pirate, 1989) (Tallant, 1998) (Groom, 2006) (Jr., 1996) (Davis, 2005) (Remini, 1999) (Borneman, 2004)

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  2. page James Armistead Patrick Craig edited ... - Would get 40 dollars annually for serving the military - Died on August Ninth , 1830 Hi…
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    - Would get 40 dollars annually for serving the military
    - Died on August Ninth , 1830
    History paper
    James Armistead
    Patrick Craig
    James Armistead was born in 1748 in Kent Virginia (Gray, 2007). He was born into the world but he was also born into slavery under his owner William Armistead (Josey, 2005). James Armistead loathed his master and joined the army. James Armistead was very intelligent but was not respected for his intelligence because he was a slave and he only had one job (Josey, 2005). When Armistead asked to go into the war his Master William Armistead accepted his request to join the Revolutionary (Gray, 2007). Although it is not a fact William Armistead had no idea how important his acceptance of James Armistead going into the war was. Most blacks in wars were soldiers in the front line and for the Revolution both England and America had black slaves fighting (Gray, 2007).
    In 1781 Armistead joined the army and was a spy under a Marquis de Lafayette (Gray, 2007). When Armistead was on his spy duties he would pretend to be a runaway slave and sneaked into Benedict Arnold’s camp posing as a guide (Gray, 2007). James got into Arnolds camp by offering fish for his freedom (Rappaport, 2003). There was a note in which James was supposed to deliver to another spy working for Marquis de Lafayette. James had a signal to show that he was a spy but only the other spy would understand the signal. When James gave the signal it was successful (Rappaport, 2003). Armistead later stayed on the camp and posed as a spy for Benedict Arnold and was a guide to Arnold’s troops and overheard military strategies. Armistead learned valuable information about Arnolds movement of troops in the chaos in Virginia. James Armistead later learned further details on General Cornwallis’ camp in Virginia which Marquis de Laffayette needed information on (Gray, 2007).
    The French and Americans battled the British in the battle of Yorktown in 1781. The Battle was in Viginia. Marquis de Laffayette led the continental army. James Armistead got his biggest information yet. He got the information that made him an unknown hero in the war. He got the valuable information at Arnolds camp. James Armistead got info that a naval fleet was going to send 100,000 troops to General Cornwallis’ camp for renforcments. Armistead immidietly gave the information to Laffayette. Laffayette stopped the British dead in their tracks with a blockade (Gray, 2007). The British later surrendered the battle on October 19th (Wiki, 2011)1781with 142-301 British troops killed. 7,416 of a minimum were captured in the Battle (Wiki, 2011). The British later surrendered the war along with the Battle of Yorktown. James Armistead helped end the Revolutionary war with the information that he fed to Laffayette. James Armistead did all this in his first year of military service. James Armistead helped get the freedom of America and to think that he started out as a slave in Kent, Virginia.
    After the war was over James Armistead even though he helped end the war and free America he was not free. He returned to William Armistead as just another slave (Josey, 2005). Marquis de Laffayatte however did return to James Armistead and helped Armistead write a recommendation for freedom (Gray, 2007). Armistead was approved for freedom in 1787, 7 years after the war which means that he was aslave for six years. After being approved he was so grateful that he took Laffayette’s last name. James Armistead Lafayette later lived as a farmer living in New Kent (Wiki, 2011). James Armistead lived with his wife and several children. Coincidently James Armistead Lafayette owned three slaves at one point. In 1818 he applied for financial aid and received 60$ for present relief and 40$ a year for being apart of the Revolutionary War. James Armistead born in New Kent, Virginia a slave turned to an American spy that helped win the war then going back to slavery then a farmer died on August 9th 1830 of natural causes.
    I chose James Armistead because he is an unknown hero. I did not know anything about James Armistead and I find his story very interesting. James Armistead wasn’t just another spy and from the information that I have studied he was treated like another soldier after the war. James Armistead was much more than just another soldier. When I say that he helped make America a free country I don’t mean that he just participated I mean that James Armistead is a hero. He was a black slave that entered the military just trying to help his country but I don’t think that he knew that he would give the information that ended the war.
    Unknown Author http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Armistead 2/8/11
    Madison Gray BLACK **HISTORY** MONTH 2007 - **James** **Armistead** - TIME 2/6/11
    UNKNOWN AUTHOR http://www.history.org/media/podcasts_transcripts/CWPP_RJosey.cfm 2/10/11
    Doreen Rapapport Victory or Death: 8 stories of the Revolutionary War Harper Collins 2003
    Richard Josey http://www.history.org/media/podcasts_transcripts/CWPP_RJosey.cfm
    Eye Witness Histroy http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/yorktown.htm 2/22/11

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    5:20 am
  3. page Battle of Yorktown- Matt McDermott edited ... Yorktown-Michael Weber (New York: Twenty-First Centry Books 1997) Land Battles of the Revolu…
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    Yorktown-Michael Weber (New York: Twenty-First Centry Books 1997)
    Land Battles of the Revolutionary War (Diane Smolinski: Chicago IL 1950)
    Map
    {http://xenophongroup.com/mcjoynt/yrk-cmp.gif}
    summary
    George Washington was an American general and commander-in-chief of the continental army in the Revolutionary War. He lived from 1732-1799 and was called the father of his country. George Washington had many great achievements such as the Battle of Yorktown. The Battle of Yorktown was the final major battle of the Revolutionary War. With the help of the French, Washington managed to trap the British at Yorktown. This lead to the British surrender in 1781. Later on in his life he became the first president of the united states from 1789-1797. Many great battles and other achievements like these have lead George Washington to become greatly known through the whole world.
    research paper
    Matthew McDermott
    History research paper
    2/16/11
    In the spring of 1781, the Revolutionary War had been raging for six years. Spirits were low, and soldiers were getting tired of war (Weber, 1997, 18). At this point, 4,000 French soldiers sailed to Newport, Rhode Island. Then, the British received word from General Clinton to move his troops to Yorktown, Virginia. Shortly after, General Washington and Marquis de Lafayette met in Wethersfield, Connecticut, to figure out their strategy against the British (The Battle of Yorktown). Their plans would ultimately lead to America’s Independence when the British surrendered at The Battle of Yorktown.
    Three of the most important leaders in the Battle of Yorktown were George Washington, Marquis de Lafayette, and Comte de Rochambeau. Washington lived from 1732-1799, and came from a family of wealthy planters. He was one of the most experienced generals in the Revolutionary War and was widely respected for his judgment and character. Another important player was French general, Marquis de Lafayette. Lafayette was a wealthy man who joined the army when he was only 14 years old. The final general was Comte de Rochambeau. Rochambeau was the commander of the French army in America. He was from a wealthy family and was born in 1725. In 1742, he entered the army and came to America. He then returned to France in 1783 (Weber, 1997, 25). The French decided to help the Americans fight the British so they could avenge their humiliating defeat to the British during the Seven Years War (Weber, 1997, 13). This team of Washington, Rochambeau, and Lafayette proved to be a strong force against the British.
    On the other side of the battle there were two main generals. These generals were Sir Henry Clinton and General Charles Cornwallis. Henry Clinton was born in 1783, and was the son of George Clinton who was the colonial governor of New York (Sir Henry Clinton). Charles Cornwallis was born in London in 1738 and died in 1805. He was a British commander, and was also a politician for the other part of his life. He was born into an aristocratic family, and joined the military in 1776 (Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis ). Both of these generals were good soldiers, but they were nothing compared to the generals of the United States.
    During their initial meeting, Washington and Lafayette agreed to trap the British at Yorktown. Lafayette followed Cornwallis and set up a base 12 miles west of the British. In order to trap them, the French Naval fleet went by sea, and Washington and Rochambeau went south by land. Cornwallis was now expecting reinforcements from Clinton, so he continued to fortify his position at Yorktown. Little did he know that because the French ships were blocking the harbor, his reinforcement would not be able to get in. Because Cornwallis chose to stay at Yorktown and not take the opportunity to retreat, he was trapped at his position (The Battle of Yorktown).
    After the British loss at the Battle of Chesapeake Bay, the French naval fleet blocked British access to Chesapeake Bay, and French and American troops traveled south to block an inland move. The Battle of Chesapeake Bay was a naval battle in the Revolutionary War. It occurred near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay in Virginia between a British fleet led by Rear admiral. The British lost the battle, and this later lead to Cornwallis’ surrender at the Battle of Yorktown (The Battle of Chesapeake Capes). Because the French and American soldiers surrounded the British, they could not escape, and they were also unable to get reinforcements. Because the British had few options, they faced a clear disadvantage.
    In Yorktown, Virginia, in late September, 1781, the Battle of Yorktown began. On September 28, the American and French fleet moved within one mile of Yorktown. The siege had officially begun (The Battle of Yorktown). By October 9, the bombardment had been going on for 48 days. But on this day, the British received the hardest attacks of all (The Battle of Yorktown). The heaviest bombardment began when French general, Saint Simon, fired the first shot at 3 pm. This bombardment also managed to drive off the British ships that were anchored in the harbor. Two hours later, an American flag was raised to tell the American artillery to fire (Weber, 1997, 37). At this point, soldiers were more than three weeks into the battle, and troops had been continuously tightening their control around Yorktown (Coughlin, 2008). On October 11, American and French soldiers make a quick attack on the British. Soldiers moved closer and jumped over a defense wall that the British built (Weber, 1997, 39). Many British soldiers were killed, but there were also many wounded American and French soldiers. Nine American soldiers died and twenty-five were wounded. One of the causalities was Sergeant William Brown of Connecticut. He became the first person ever to receive the Purple Heart (Weber, 1997, 39).
    Because of the heavy attacks, the British were almost ready to give up. However, they came up with a way to escape. Around midnight, 1,000 British troops crossed the river on ship with hopes of escape, but returned the next day to say that they were heavily surrounded (Weber, 1997, 41). With no hope of escape or reinforcement, Cornwallis decided to surrender his army at 2pm on October 19 (Coughlin, 2008).
    A few days after the surrender, British troops were sent back to Britain with their weapons, but the higher ranking officers were sentenced to prison in Virginia and Pennsylvania (The Battle of Yorktown).
    Unfortunately, the Battle of Yorktown resulted in many casualties. Rochambeau had 262 causalities. Cornwallis, who lost the Battle, had fewer than 8000 troops, and the total number of causalities were unknown (Smolinski, 1950). Overall, Rochambeau had a better, stronger army that helped the US win one of the most important battles that eventually lead to Americas independence (Coughlin, 2008).
    The Battle of Yorktown was a great battle. When America won, there were many big celebrations. The victory of this war lead to American independence and it had gone down in American history as the beginning of our nation. The Battle of Yorktown was a huge part of America’s independence.
    Ayres, E. (n.d.). The French Alliance and the Winning of American Independence. Retrieved feburary 23, 2011, from historyisfun.org: http://www.historyisfun.org/the-french-alliance.htm
    Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis. (n.d.). Retrieved feburary 23, 2011, from wikipedia.org: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Cornwallis,_1st_Marquess_Cornwallis
    Coughlin, B. (2008, september 2). The Washington-Rochambeau route to victory, Yorktown Battlefields. Retrieved januray 2011, from hmbs.org: http://www.hmdb.org/Marker.asp?Marker=11016
    Sir Henry Clinton. (n.d.). Retrieved feburary 23, 2011, from sonofthesouth.net: http://www.sonofthesouth.net/revolutionary-war/british/sir-henry-clinton.htm
    Smolinski, D. (1950). Land Battles of the Revolutionary War. Chicago Il: Heinemann Library.
    The Battle of Chesapeake Capes. (n.d.). Retrieved feburary 23, 2011, from myrevolutionarywar.com: http://www.myrevolutionarywar.com/battles/810905.htm
    The Battle of Yorktown. (n.d.). Retrieved January 9, 2011, from myrevolutionarywar.com: http://www.myrevolutionarywar.com/battles/810928.htm
    Weber, M. (1997). Yorktown. New York: Twenty-First Century Books.

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  4. page The Battle of Brandywine_Chris Klabonski edited Battle of Brandywine For my research project I will be doing the Battle of Brandywine. The Chris…
    Battle of Brandywine
    For my research project I will be doing the Battle of Brandywine. The
    Chris Klabonski
    The
    Battle of Brandywine took plalewas fought on September 11, 1777, in Brandywine, Pennsylvania. At1777. General William Howe was the Battleleader of Brandywinethe British, and General George Washington
    ...
    the Americans. General HoweFor the British they had roughly 89 killed and 488 wounded, but for the Americans they had 200 killed, 500 wounded, and 400 captured. The British obviously won this battle, and this battle led to the fall of Philadelphia. (Wikipedia, The Battle of Brandywine)
    This was the first time
    the British had defeated someone in North America since 1776. General Howe did not like how George Washington would not come out and fight except for when his army was under attack. Howe tried to capturelure George Washington to come out in public so he could kill him in a battle, but George Washington was very stubborn, and would not come out. General Howe also tried to beat Washington because if he killed Washington he would wipe out the main American army and win the war. Howe’s brother owned an armada, a fleet of war ships, and he loaded his men onto the ships and sailed to the Delaware Bay. Howe and his army did this because if he came from the south he could shut down Philadelphia, and trap Washington. Washington could not reinforce his army with General Horatio Gates’ army, and Gates’ army would have to fight against John Burgoyne, another English general. Howe stopped with his army at Chesapeake Bay, and after a few days traveling the Americans knew what they were going to do, they just did not know when it would happen. The Americans then defeatmoved out and they went through Philadelphia without stopping. Many of Howe’s men and horses were seasick, and many died. Some American dragoons helped the British re-equip, and Howe’s men were able to stop and rest without being attacked. A few days later the British were split into two parts, and one section was led by General Cornwallis, and another was led by General Knyphausen. General Cornwallis’ section went first heading north up the road. George Washington moved his soldiers to the Brandywine River in Chads Ford, Pennsylvania. The Americans were ready to battle. The Americans had an excellent plan. They had very strategic lines in which they would march. They were set and they were bracing for the attack from the British. (The War Times Journal, The Battle of Brandywine.Brandywine)
    Now it was September 11, 1777 and William Howe was dividing his army. First Knyphausen marched along one of the roads to try and distract Washington so that Howe’s group of men could come and trap them. Many other sections of Howe’s army tried to trap Washington’s army where they were. The morning was foggy, and while the British soldiers were marching on the road they saw the Americans in the woods right beside them, and they had a small battle. This battle did not affect anything because not many people were hit, and it was hard to see. Maxwell’s American Army started to fall to the British, but then they moved across the river. Washington moved his headquarters to the heights. The heights were where General Procter’s guns were. An American colonel sent Washington a letter saying that Howe had 5,000 men coming towards him, but it was not true. Then the Americans crossed the Brandywine River, and Washington thought that his plan to attack them across the river could be a very bad idea. Washington was supposed to receive a note, but it was too late because the note said that Howe’s men were coming at them. (The War Times Journal,
    The Battle occured duringof Brandywine)
    Washington made some defensive positions, and they moved toward
    the Revolutionary War.Birmingham meeting house. There was a hill right beside the Birmingham meeting house, and the British and the Americans fought over this hill because it would give them an advantage because of where it was positioned. Sullivan’s army had to meet up with other armies and combine, but they did not do it too quickly because they had to hurry, and they had to run through narrow lanes, and try to escape from the British. The British started firing at the Americans, and on the way down the hill an American man showed a colonel the cuts on his face and said that the British were firing fish hooks. The fight of Birmingham Hill was not yet over. The British gained control of the hill because they had a series of attacks on the Americans from all different directions. The Americans lost the fight of Birmingham Hill. (The War Times Journal, The Battle of Brandywine)
    The Battle of Brandywine was still not over. Conway made a brigade on a hill near Birmingham Hill, and then his men were hit with a musket ball and were carried off of the Battlefield. This was the last American Army left in the Battle of Brandywine. They were then pushed back by the British, and the British won The Battle of Brandywine which allowed them to take possession of Philadelphia. (The War Times Journal, The Battle of Brandywine)

    Bibliography
    Battle of Brandywine Bibliography
    The Battle of Brandywine occurred on September 11, 1777, and the Americans were led by George Washington.(anonymous)
    The Revolutionary War 1777: A Year of Decision Volume 5, James R. Arnold and Roberta Wiener, Scholastic Library Publishing, Danbury, CT., 2004

    The War Times Journal, The Battle of Brandywine, http://www.wtj.com/articles/brandywine/
    ...
    Battle of BrandywineBrandywine, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Brandywine
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Sunday, February 27

  1. page Cherry Vally Massacre_Charles Simmonds edited ... The Cherry Valley Massacre happened on a snowy and rainy winter morning on November 11, 1778. …
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    The Cherry Valley Massacre happened on a snowy and rainy winter morning on November 11, 1778. This battle happened in the Revolutionary War between the British and Seneca vs. the Patriots. Cherry Valley was a small village and fort in eastern New York. This battle has been described by some historians as the bloodiest frontier massacre in the Revolution. This massacre occurred because the Seneca were angry about the burning of Tioga by troops under Colonel Thomas Hartley’s command.
    (Wikipedia, February 15, 2011)
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/a/a7/CherryValleyMassacreMap.jpg/450px-CherryValleyMassacreMap.jpg} Map of the Area Around Cherry Valley
    The whole massacre was based on revenge for the Tories and Iroquois for the decimation of Oquaga, Unadilla, Tioga, and other important settlements. It was also revenge for a Tory, Walter N. Butler. Butler had been captured in the act of convincing colonists to stay with King George, behind American lines. He was reprieved from a death sentence from Benedict Arnold, the traitorous general, and he was instead sent to the terribly notorious Albany Prison. He was again reprieved by faking illness and he was sent to a private house that was guarded by only one soldier. That soldier was then given lots of food and drink and a voluptuous woman and he was soon passed out drunk. Walter then escaped on a horse and eventually made his way to Niagara to join his father. When he got there he made a solemn pledge to exact revenge upon the people who did this to him. When they finally started to attack Cherry Valley Butler captured ten men. The leader of those men, Sergeant Adam Hunter realized he was staring into the face of the man he once guarded in an Albany house that had escaped and nearly caused his demotion.
    (My Revolutionary War, February 15, 2011)
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  2. page Cherry Vally Massacre_Charles Simmonds edited ... This book only told me stuff I already knew except for it was 600 Indians and Tories vs. 450 M…
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    This book only told me stuff I already knew except for it was 600 Indians and Tories vs. 450 Massachusetts Regimental Troops and that Joseph Brant saw a "military drill" going on outside the fort when it was really just children in paper hats playing with wooden swords pretending to play "war".
    (The Cherry Valley massacre, November 11, 1778: The frontier atrocity that shocked a young nation, 1968)
    SUMMARY:
    Charles Simmonds
    History 7-2
    Mr. Mills
    February 27, 2011
    The Cherry Valley Massacre: Revenge or Hate?
    The Cherry Valley Massacre happened on a snowy and rainy winter morning on November 11, 1778. This battle happened in the Revolutionary War between the British and Seneca vs. the Patriots. Cherry Valley was a small village and fort in eastern New York. This battle has been described by some historians as the bloodiest frontier massacre in the Revolution. This massacre occurred because the Seneca were angry about the burning of Tioga by troops under Colonel Thomas Hartley’s command.

    September 5, 1776: Captain Robert McKean made a company of Rangers but they were called away, all the residents of Cherry Valley signed a petition and sent it to the Governor of New York demanding protection. New York sent Captain William Winne and a company of Rangers to protect them. They took over Samuel Campbell's house because it was on high ground and they made an encircling embankment of logs and dirt. Residents were still scared.
    April 21, 1778: Scouting patrols were sent out by Fort Plank, Fort Dayton, and Schoharie Fort. The intelligence gathered by the patrols summed up that the forces of Tories and Indians were being gathered on the upper Susquehanna mostly at Unadilla and Oquaga. They also found out those forces were preparing to raid and attack outlying settlements that were defenseless against them. Cherry Valley residents again became scared because they felt they were a prime target. Cherry Valley again petitioned New York authorities such as Brigadier General Edward Hand who was in Albany at the time. They demanded troops and if they didn't get them they said they were going to seek safety elsewhere and leave Cherry Valley. Hand said there was no need to leave because the latest reports said they were not likely to be attacked. Colonel Ichabod Alden was sent to protect Schoharie, Cobleskill, Andrustown, and Cherry Valley. That was too much land for 38 soldiers to protect.
    ...
    he claimed "This,"This will never
    ...
    Schoharie and Canojoharie,Canajoharie, Cherry Valley
    May 29, 1778: At the top of Lady Hill one mile east of Cherry Valley was Joseph Brant. He was watching the village and he was not happy. His plan had been to attack the town with 450 Indians and Tories but Cherry Valley had changed. There was now an almost finished stockade around the church, graveyard, and meetinghouse and there was a company of soldiers all wearing the same pointed hats and they had swords at their waists and rifles on their shoulders. Brant watched them and determined they were new soldiers and not a threat but there could be more of them in the meeting house or in Campbell's house.
    August 1, 1778: Colonel Alden and his 150 troops were sent to Cherry Valley to repair and defend it from Indians.
    November 1, 1778: 10 Days until the atrocity that shocked the US. Three Tryon County officials and Colonel Alden sat in the fortified home of Campbell in Cherry Valley as Alden made a toast to the continued safety of Cherry Valley. Alden was claiming no one would ever try an attack this late in the year.
    November 2, 1778: Brant, William Butler, and Chief Little Beard did not like each other but there they were on their way to attack their target of Cherry Valley.
    ...
    Stanwix saying:
    Fort

    Fort
    Stanwix, Nov. 6th, 1778Sir,1778
    Sir,
    We were
    ...
    on your guard.Iguard.
    I
    am, Sir, yours, &c.ROBERT&c.
    ROBERT
    COCHRANE, Major, CommandingColonelCommanding
    Colonel
    Ichabod AldenFortAlden
    Fort
    Alden - Cherry Valley
    November 10, 1778: The day before. The scouting party headed by Sergeant Adam Hunter was captured and he spilled the beans completely and the Indians and Tories knew everything about Cherry Valley and Fort Alden. Little John Wells was sent away and the little black carriage was being watched by a hundred Indians and Tories and they let it go even when it was out of sight of the town. Throughout the evening it started raining and then just before midnight it started snowing.
    ...
    blood thirsty Senecas.Seneca. Brant and
    ...
    was Ensign Williams.ThenWilliams. Then the entire
    ...
    Ichabod Alden.
    (The Wilderness War, 1978)

    Bibliography:
    Eckert, Allan. The Wilderness War. (Little, Brown), 1978
    (view changes)
    11:31 am
  3. page Cherry Vally Massacre_Charles Simmonds edited ... Fort Stanwix, Nov. 6th, 1778Sir, We were just now informed by an Oneida Indian that yesterday …
    ...
    Fort Stanwix, Nov. 6th, 1778Sir, We were just now informed by an Oneida Indian that yesterday an Onondaga Indian arrived at their castle from one of the branches of the Susquehanna, called the Tioga. That he was present at a great meeting of Indians and Tories at that place and their result was to attack Cherry Valley, and that young Butler was to head the Tories. I send you this information that you may be on your guard.I am, Sir, yours, &c.ROBERT COCHRANE, Major, CommandingColonel Ichabod AldenFort Alden - Cherry Valley
    November 10, 1778: The day before. The scouting party headed by Sergeant Adam Hunter was captured and he spilled the beans completely and the Indians and Tories knew everything about Cherry Valley and Fort Alden. Little John Wells was sent away and the little black carriage was being watched by a hundred Indians and Tories and they let it go even when it was out of sight of the town. Throughout the evening it started raining and then just before midnight it started snowing.
    ...
    stupid, incompetent man.man: Colonel Ichabod
    (The Wilderness War, 1978)
    Bibliography:
    (view changes)
    11:22 am
  4. page Cherry Vally Massacre_Charles Simmonds edited ... November 10, 1778: The day before. The scouting party headed by Sergeant Adam Hunter was captu…
    ...
    November 10, 1778: The day before. The scouting party headed by Sergeant Adam Hunter was captured and he spilled the beans completely and the Indians and Tories knew everything about Cherry Valley and Fort Alden. Little John Wells was sent away and the little black carriage was being watched by a hundred Indians and Tories and they let it go even when it was out of sight of the town. Throughout the evening it started raining and then just before midnight it started snowing.
    November 11, 1778: The terrible day of the massacre. The snowfall accumulated to 2-3 inches. Just before dawn the wind picked up and it turned into a stinging sleet. Not many people were awake at 5:45 in the morning but there were some officers and soldiers walking around and some residents doing jobs. None of them knew there every move was being watched. It was around 10:30 in the morning when two Indians attacked Timothy Hamlin and one shot him through the arm and one missed. He immediately galloped to town and warned everyone. There was confusion along the Indian line thinking it was supposed to be three shots but there were only two and then they charged led by the blood thirsty Senecas. Brant and some men went to cut off Ichabod and his officers. The first scalp taken of the day was Ensign Williams.Then the entire Wells family except for Jane, Eleanor, and John were killed and scalped and tomahawked along with three slaves. Alden ran from the house and would have made it into the fort if he didn't look back and see Brant charging towards him and so he turned and tried to shoot Brant but before he could even pull the trigger Brant threw his tomahawk and nailed Alden right in the center of his forehead. He quickly scalped him and trotted back to the Wells house. Brant wanted to save the Wells as he was friends with them but he was too late. He tried to save the Shanklands and rescued everyone but the Father and eldest son. Hugh Mitchell, the man who noticed the problem with the fortifications, had his entire family killed and he escaped. By two in the afternoon Cherry Valley was completely destroyed. Only one Indian was wounded. 74 Americans had been killed. 42 of them were soldiers. 32 of them were civilians. 32 out of 33 houses, 31 barns, 2 mills, and a blacksmith shop had been burned to the ground. All this happened because of one stupid, incompetent man. Colonel Ichabod Alden.
    ...
    Wilderness War, 19781978)
    Bibliography:
    Eckert, Allan. The Wilderness War. (Little, Brown), 1978
    (view changes)
    11:22 am
  5. page Cherry Vally Massacre_Charles Simmonds edited ... Fate of Jane Eleanor Wells THE CHERRY VALLEY MASSACRE The Cherry Valley Massacre happene…
    ...
    Fate of JaneEleanor Wells
    THE CHERRY VALLEY MASSACRE
    The Cherry Valley Massacre happened on a snowy and rainy winter morning on November 11, 1778. This battle happened in the Revolutionary War between the British and Seneca vs. the Patriots. Cherry Valley was a small village and fort in eastern New York. This battle has been described by some historians as the bloodiest frontier massacre in the Revolution. This massacre occurred because the Seneca were angry about the burning of Tioga by troops under Colonel Thomas Hartley’s command.
    ...
    Fort Stanwix, Nov. 6th, 1778Sir, We were just now informed by an Oneida Indian that yesterday an Onondaga Indian arrived at their castle from one of the branches of the Susquehanna, called the Tioga. That he was present at a great meeting of Indians and Tories at that place and their result was to attack Cherry Valley, and that young Butler was to head the Tories. I send you this information that you may be on your guard.I am, Sir, yours, &c.ROBERT COCHRANE, Major, CommandingColonel Ichabod AldenFort Alden - Cherry Valley
    November 10, 1778: The day before. The scouting party headed by Sergeant Adam Hunter was captured and he spilled the beans completely and the Indians and Tories knew everything about Cherry Valley and Fort Alden. Little John Wells was sent away and the little black carriage was being watched by a hundred Indians and Tories and they let it go even when it was out of sight of the town. Throughout the evening it started raining and then just before midnight it started snowing.
    ...
    three slaves. Alden ran from the house and would have made it into the fort if he didn't look back and see Brant charging towards him and so he turned and tried to shoot Brant but before he could even pull the trigger Brant threw his tomahawk and nailed Alden right in the center of his forehead. He quickly scalped him and trotted back to the Wells house. Brant wanted to save the Wells as he was friends with them but he was too late. He tried to save the Shanklands and rescued everyone but the Father and eldest son. Hugh Mitchell, the man who noticed the problem with the fortifications, had his entire family killed and he escaped. By two in the afternoon Cherry Valley was completely destroyed. Only one Indian was wounded. 74 Americans had been killed. 42 of them were soldiers. 32 of them were civilians. 32 out of 33 houses, 31 barns, 2 mills, and a blacksmith shop had been burned to the ground. All this happened because of one stupid, incompetent man. Colonel Ichabod Alden.
    (The Wilderness War, 1978

    Bibliography:
    Eckert, Allan. The Wilderness War. (Little, Brown), 1978
    Goodnough, David. The Cherry Valley massacre, November 11, 1778: The frontier atrocity that shocked a young nation. (New York, New York: F. Watts), 1968.
    Cherry Valley massacre. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cherry_Valley_massacre, February 15, 2011
    (view changes)
    11:14 am
  6. page Cherry Vally Massacre_Charles Simmonds edited ... April 21, 1778: Scouting patrols were sent out by Fort Plank, Fort Dayton, and Schoharie Fort.…
    ...
    April 21, 1778: Scouting patrols were sent out by Fort Plank, Fort Dayton, and Schoharie Fort. The intelligence gathered by the patrols summed up that the forces of Tories and Indians were being gathered on the upper Susquehanna mostly at Unadilla and Oquaga. They also found out those forces were preparing to raid and attack outlying settlements that were defenseless against them. Cherry Valley residents again became scared because they felt they were a prime target. Cherry Valley again petitioned New York authorities such as Brigadier General Edward Hand who was in Albany at the time. They demanded troops and if they didn't get them they said they were going to seek safety elsewhere and leave Cherry Valley. Hand said there was no need to leave because the latest reports said they were not likely to be attacked. Colonel Ichabod Alden was sent to protect Schoharie, Cobleskill, Andrustown, and Cherry Valley. That was too much land for 38 soldiers to protect.
    May 14, 1778: General Lafayette went to Cherry Valley saw the feeble fortification the residents had made and demanded better fortifications from Congress for he claimed "This, will never do! In relation to Albany and the intermediate posts at Schoharie and Canojoharie, Cherry Valley is an extremely important outpost. I will recommend at once that a more suitable fortification be erected here." When the construction was nearing an end one resident, Hugh Mitchell, said "Aren't there supposed to be holes for the defenders to fire guns through if we're attacked?" The clumsy engineer Captain Aaron Hickling of Boston blushed deeply at that comment for he had forgotten the embrasures.
    May 29, 1778: At the top of Lady Hill one mile east of Cherry Valley was Joseph Brant. He was watching the village and he was not happy. His plan had been to attack the town with 450 Indians and Tories but Cherry Valley had changed. There was now an almost finished stockade around the church, graveyard, and meetinghouse and there was a company of soldiers all wearing the same pointed hats and they had swords at their waists and rifles on their shoulders. Brant watched them and determined they were new soldiers and not a threat but there could be more of them in the meeting house or in Campbell's house.
    August 1, 1778: Colonel Alden and his 150 troops were sent to Cherry Valley to repair and defend it from Indians.
    November 1, 1778: 10 Days until the atrocity that shocked the US. Three Tryon County officials and Colonel Alden sat in the fortified home of Campbell in Cherry Valley as Alden made a toast to the continued safety of Cherry Valley. Alden was claiming no one would ever try an attack this late in the year.
    November 2, 1778: Brant, William Butler, and Chief Little Beard did not like each other but there they were on their way to attack their target of Cherry Valley.
    November 9, 1778: Cherry Valley became extremely scared again and not even Brigadier General Edward Hand could sooth them who was visiting at the time. They were so scared because they had received a letter from Fort Stanwix saying:
    Fort Stanwix, Nov. 6th, 1778Sir, We were just now informed by an Oneida Indian that yesterday an Onondaga Indian arrived at their castle from one of the branches of the Susquehanna, called the Tioga. That he was present at a great meeting of Indians and Tories at that place and their result was to attack Cherry Valley, and that young Butler was to head the Tories. I send you this information that you may be on your guard.I am, Sir, yours, &c.ROBERT COCHRANE, Major, CommandingColonel Ichabod AldenFort Alden - Cherry Valley
    November 10, 1778: The day before. The scouting party headed by Sergeant Adam Hunter was captured and he spilled the beans completely and the Indians and Tories knew everything about Cherry Valley and Fort Alden. Little John Wells was sent away and the little black carriage was being watched by a hundred Indians and Tories and they let it go even when it was out of sight of the town. Throughout the evening it started raining and then just before midnight it started snowing.
    November 11, 1778: The terrible day of the massacre. The snowfall accumulated to 2-3 inches. Just before dawn the wind picked up and it turned into a stinging sleet. Not many people were awake at 5:45 in the morning but there were some officers and soldiers walking around and some residents doing jobs. None of them knew there every move was being watched. It was around 10:30 in the morning when two Indians attacked Timothy Hamlin and one shot him through the arm and one missed. He immediately galloped to town and warned everyone. There was confusion along the Indian line thinking it was supposed to be three shots but there were only two and then they charged led by the blood thirsty Senecas. Brant and some men went to cut off Ichabod and his officers. The first scalp taken of the day was Ensign Williams.Then the entire Wells family except for Jane, Eleanor, and John were killed and scalped and tomahawked along with three slaves.

    Bibliography:
    Goodnough, David. The Cherry Valley massacre, November 11, 1778: The frontier atrocity that shocked a young nation. (New York, New York: F. Watts), 1968.
    (view changes)
    10:44 am

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